Pdf popular defence forces pdoc petrodar operating company psc african union peace and security council ros republic of sudan ross republic of south sudan saf sudan armed forces sdbz safe demilitarized border zone sdg sudanese pounds slaaw sudan liberation armyabdul wahid slamm sudan liberation armyminni minawi splma sudan peoples. The lack of basic infrastructure, educated and skilled. Today, after two weeks of fighting in south sudan that is believed to have killed more than 1,000 people, representatives from both the government and rebel forces met in ethiopia to discuss the. Aug 23, 2016 south sudans current conflict leaves residents in desperate state nprs kelly mcevers speaks with justin lynch, a journalist in juba, south sudan, about the roots of the current conflict in.
South sudan, officially the republic of south sudan, is a landlocked country located in eastcentral africa. That year also saw a new armed conflict emerge between the government of sudan and armed groups within south kordofan and blue nile, two states bordering the new international border with south sudan. Oct, 20 conflict in sudan darfur by arundathie abeysinghe lecturer international aviation academy srilankan airlines 2. A human rights report united nations mission in south sudan. This report presents the findings of investigations and documentation conducted by the human rights division of the united nations mission in the republic of south sudan unmiss since 15. A special focus should be on the major adaptational groups in darfur and we should seek to develop a. South sudans current conflict leaves residents in desperate. An analysis of mediation as a tool in conflict resolution in. The first civil war in sudan broke out in 1955, a few. Yet in the past, oil production was linked with serious human rights abuses, such as forced displacement. This report explores key questions related to the conflict below, summarizes the international response to date, and outlines current u. Key characteristics of the economy south sudan s dependence on subsistence agriculture and food aid indicates that the countrys present economic state is extremely poor. The northsouth conflict in historical perspective t he peoples ofsouthern sudan have suffered nearly two centuries of colonial rule under the turkoegyptian, the mahdiya, the anglo egyptian, and the postindependencenorthern regimes.
Pdf the armed forces of sudan and newly independent south sudan. Both have their origins in unresolved tensions following the split. Since the split, sudan and south sudan s oil production has declined because of continued domestic political instability and conflict between the two countries. It also shows oil fields in the border area, and oil pipelines. The sudanese conflict in south kordofan and blue nile, also referred to by some media as the third sudanese civil war, is an ongoing armed conflict in the sudanese southern states of south kordofan and blue nile between the sudanese army saf and sudan peoples liberation movementnorth splmn, a northern affiliate of the sudan peoples. Making it a benefit for all executive summary executive summary oil production is the key factor in the development of south sudan, since july 2011 the worlds newest independent country. Jonglei is not the only south sudanese state wracked by cattle raids and tribal violence. The role of regional organizations in conflict management. After the discovery of the unity oil fields, the government became hesitant to publicly. It is an outsiders view and will no doubt, given the complexity of south sudan, be full of gaps and generalisations. Leif manger department of social anthropology university of bergen. The other face of the collapse of democratic systems three times since independence in 1956 is the tenacity with which democracy is restored and defended. The south sudanese civil war was a conflict in south sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. Introduction armed groups, the sudan liberation army sla and justice and equality movement jem, began the war reasons are cited as lack of economic development which demands a greater share of countrys resources.
An analysis of darfur crisis, western sudan usman a. Since 1982, search has led programs around the world to help societies trans. Fighting broke out between the sudan peoples liberation movement splm. The protracted conflict in sudan reflects the long standing economic disparities, political exclusion and social and cultural deprivation in the distribution of political and economic power between the centre and the peripheries. Although southern sudanese independence was a great leap forward in solving this conflict, the nations of sudan and south sudan must continue to cooperate in order to achieve true peace and understanding etween the governments and peoples of their nations. The strength of the narrative is in trying to provide nuance. The conflict began in 2003 when rebels launched an insurrection to protest what they contended was the sudanese governments disregard for the western region and its nonarab population. The limits of darfurs peace process, the third report in a series that analyses the roots of the conflicts in sudans peripheries. Abstract the paper will deal with the broader understanding of the current crisis in darfur, sudan. Machar denied trying to start a coup and fled to lead the splm in opposition splmio. Resource conflict as a factor in the darfur crisis in sudan by. Conflict analysis and options for systemic conflict.
Main causes of conflict in south sudan are oil and weak institutions, says dr. In resolving these conflicts, mediation has been used as a tool for conflict resolution. In the late 1970s and 1980s, civil war, famine, and fear of political persecution forced over a million ethiopians to seek refuge in sudan. Pdf the heglig oil dispute between sudan and south sudan. Conflict between 19551976 and 19832005 between the colonially modernised arab north and the underdeveloped christian and animist south brought widespread civilian suffering. Box mp 167 mt pleasant, harare mphil student and assistant lecturer in the war and strategic studies unit at the university of zimbabwe. During the reign of thutmose i, the kingdom of kerma rebelled against egyptian rule and thutmose i traveled up the nile and fought in the battle, personally killing the nubian king. With international pressure, in 2005, a comprehensive peace agreement cpa was signed by the sudan peoples liberation army splma and khartoum. With the south sudanese conflict in its fifth year in 2018, this paper seeks to not only examine the status of the civil war that has engulfed the youngest nation on earth but to also discuss the evolving narratives of its causes and provide policy.
Central african republic in the southeast and northwest of car and aims to enable cohesive, self. Whether these conflicts are a product of governance failure, environmental decline shrinking natural resource base, unequal distribution of power and resources, land is and will remain one central issue. Specifically, this paper is of the opinion that indigenous conflict management techniques built upon traditional communication systems should be incorporated in a new approach to conflict management, if the african. Massive, chronic humanitarian needs persisted after independence, despite abundant natural resources, including oil fields from which sudan.
Sep 14, 2016 understanding the roots of conflict in south sudan. The african region has experienced many conflicts ranging from the perilous war in somalia, the postelection violence in kenya, the sierra leone conflict, the ethiopiaeritrea conflict, the genocide in rwanda the conflict in sudan just to name a few. The dinka, the ethnic group that president kiir comes from, represents approximately, 35. South sudans civil war is the result of a weakly institutionalized state and may require the african unions intervention to find peace and. The war in darfur, also nicknamed the land cruiser war, is a major armed conflict in the darfur region of sudan that began in february 2003 when the sudan liberation movement slm and the justice and equality movement jem rebel groups began fighting the government of sudan, which they accused of oppressing darfurs nonarab population. Pdf resourcebased conflict in south sudan and gambella. The internationalization of the sudanese conflicts. Solutions for moving beyond an ethnic conflict christa charbonneau kuntzelman, m. Horaha, the second pharaoh of egypt, led a campaign against the nubians. Trt world a fresh ceasefire was announced this week by south sudan s president salva kiir and vice president riek machar after five days of violence that claimed around 300 lives in capital juba the latest fighting broke out on the eve of july 9, which is the fifth anniversary of the countrys independence from sudan.
What you need to know only 10 months after south sudan gained its independence from sudan, the two countries could be on the brink of allout conflict. To avoid further humanitarian crisis to armed actors. State formation, humanitarianism, and institutional capabilities in south sudan may 2015 introduction as the humanitarian system grows and becomes increasingly complex, so too do the needs of populations and the challenges the system faces in response to crises arising from natural disasters and conflict. An analysis of mediation as a tool in conflict resolution. This ended the civil war and allowed for a referendum and eventual south sudanese independence in 2011. Although it is considered as not inclusive relating to the conflict issues e. The northsouth conflict 69 in spite of their rocky relations in the past, sudan and ethiopia have always been generous to the others citizens who sought refuge in their territory. Instead of protecting sudan s many sources of national pride, including both strong islamic and christian heritages, it has chosen the route of trying to force sudan to become a purely muslim nation, often times utilizing violent tactics to do so. African union highlevel implementation panel on sudan bpd.
South sudan as regional pawn competition between sudan and uganda over the disposition of south sudan long predated the countrys independence in 2011, manifesting primarily in their support for armed proxies. Conflict in south sudan and the challenges ahead congressional research service summary south sudan, which separated from sudan in 2011 after almost 40 years of civil war, was drawn into a devastating new conflict in late 20, when a political dispute that overlapped with preexisting ethnic and political fault lines turned violent. Profoundly regretting the suffering and distress caused to the people of south sudan by the conflict ongoing in south sudan since 15 december 20 and apologising unconditionally to. Conflict in sudan and the role of the united nations. Mar 11, 2014 locals in south sudan s dinka and nuer strongholds say that the recent political crisis, which pits the ethnic groups against one another, is concealing, and at times promoting, smaller, localised. The crisis in darfur and status of the northsouth peace agreement congressional research service summary sudan, geographically the largest country in africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. The sudanese conflict in south kordofan and blue nile, also referred to by some media as the third sudanese civil war, is an ongoing armed conflict in the sudanese southern states of south kordofan and blue nile between the sudanese army saf and sudan peoples liberation movementnorth splmn, a northern affiliate of the sudan peoples liberation movement splm in south sudan. The conflict in sudan and south sudan is not one that can be solved easily. Modern history of conflict in sudan pulitzer center. What can be done to resolve the seemingly endless conflict in sudan. Oil exports from the south had been halted and other conflicts had broken out in both.
However, its lack of implementation has sparked conflict in the oilrich abyei, south. The national intelligence and security service niss used excessive force to. Sudan s rights record showed little change in 2018. Conflicts in darfur, southern kordofan and blue nile continued. There is little need to repeat yet again this rather long history. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a. Tar university of maiduguri, nigeria abstract for a number of years, darfur region in western sudan has been a scene of violent clashes between mainly sedentary farming communities of the three african ethnic groups fur. In response, the government equipped and supported arab militiaswhich came. A separate conflict that remained unresolved centred on the darfur region in western sudan. South sudan s civil war and conflict dynamics in the red sea. Conflict profile since its independence in 1956, sudan has seen an intermittent civil war. A policy workshop country case study the root causes of conflicts in sudan and the making of the darfur tradegy eltigani seisi.
The unified sudan began producing oil in 1999, and as a result, the country tripled its per capita income within a decade. Deng kuol, associate professor at the university of juba, south sudan. Learn about the civil war in south sudan, sanctions imposed by the united states and europe, and other recent developments on cfrs global conflict tracker. Apr 12, 2010 since bashirs regime seized power in 1989, it has ultimately failed at bringing peace to sudan. This slideshow accompanies the report sudans spreading conflict iii. Sudan remains unique in that it has succeeded not once, but twice, in restoring democracy by. Conflict profile sudan north south ethnic war 1983 2005 modern conflicts home page conflicts map conflicts table peri home page sudans northsouth civil war went on for more than two decades, and resulted in roughly two million warrelated deaths and the displacement of millions of others from their homes. For additional background, see crs report r42774, sudan and south sudan. Facilitate local peace agreements as an d when appropriate between the tgonu, armed groups and armed youth, local communities and cattle keepers. Sudan update raising the stakes oil and conflict in sudan when they engage in what they call high risk oil play, the high risk they mean is not the danger to life and limb from landmines and ak47s, but the risk of financial failure. Pdf oil investment and conflict in upper nile state.
South sudan unrest exacerbated by conflict among cattle. In brief, two parallel conflicts that have been developing since 2005 have now converged, one in the governing party, the splm, and one in the army, the spla. Justice and conflict in south sudan observations from a. Civilians flee fighting at a united nations base in south sudan. Sudan s conflicts have many causes, but at the root of each conflict are questions over the control and distribution of resources. The south sudan center for conflict resolution ssccr is an indigenous organisation which started in 2008 as an initiative to engage young people with ideas of peace, development and human rights for communities from the southern sudan region. Tom rhodes is the managing editor of nuba reports, a news and video platform that focuses on the underreported conflicts in sudan. Sudan peoples liberation movementarmy splma signed on the 9th january of 2005 formally ended one of the longest and highly violent armed conflicts in africa. After almost 40 years of war between the sudan government and southern insurgents, southern sudanese voted in a january 2011 referendum to secede from sudan.
Oil investment and conflict in upper nile state, south sudan technical report pdf available january 20 with 787 reads how we measure reads. The root causes of religious conflict in sudan between the muslim north and christian south stem from primarily political sources, including historical favoritism to northern sudanese areas, unequal political representation, and governmental oppression and marginalization of certain religious groups. Previously tom worked as a press freedom advocate for the new yorkbased advocacy organisation, the committee to protect journalists and cofounded south sudan s first independent newspaper, the juba post. Conflict in south sudan and the challenges ahead congressional research service 1 background south sudan emerged in 2011 as the worlds newest country, and one of its least developed. Sudan and south sudans merging conflicts crisis group.
When water, land and oil mix with politics chapter pdf available june 20 with 4,283 reads how we measure reads. Finding peaceful resolution to the conflict in south sudan 3 ethnic variety, hosting 60 indigenous ethnic groups, the majority being christian and a small part being muslim. Sudanese conflict in south kordofan and blue nile wikipedia. Understanding the roots of conflict in south sudan. More than 2 million people have died in southern sudan over the past two. Resourcebased conflict in south sudan and gambella ethiopia. Finding peaceful resolution to the conflict in south sudan. South sudan centre for conflict resolution ssccr peace.491 457 1080 1429 427 1233 744 1473 794 323 1525 465 1068 1457 242 437 1577 1461 89 1198 385 1385 519 777 962 237 434 993 1544 685 310 1403 528 1256 837 525 342 446 1471 744 404 730 1212 718 550 326 1156 336 907 1249 785